Melek Media dan Informasi

Literasi atau melek media dan informasi (MIL) meningkatkan kapasitas orang agar dapat menikmati hak asasi manusia, khususnya sebagaimana dinyatakan dalam Pasal 19 Deklarasi Universal Hak Asasi Manusia. Pasal tersebut menyatakan:

“Setiap orang berhak atas kebebasan berpendapat dan berekspresi; hak ini termasuk kebebasan untuk memiliki pendapat tanpa gangguan dan untuk mencari, menerima, dan menyampaikan informasi dan gagasan melalui media apa pun dan tanpa memandang batas.”

MIL mencakup penghidupan seperangkat kapasitas manusia. Khususnya dalam 10 tahun terakhir, ruang lingkup, urgensi dan penerapannya telah kian menguat. Kompetensi yang mendukung ini kapasitas dapat membuat perbedaan untuk setiap orang di seluruh dunia.

Manfaat utama MIL, bila disederhanakan dapat dinyatakan dalam beberapa butir sebagai berikut:

  • Dalam proses belajar mengajar itu membekali para guru dengan pengetahuan yang ditingkatkan untuk memberdayakan warga negara masa depan;
  • Melek media dan informasi memberikan pengetahuan penting tentang fungsi media dan saluran informasi dalam masyarakat demokratis, pemahaman yang masuk akal tentang kondisi yang diperlukan untuk menjalankan fungsi-fungsi tersebut secara efektif, dan keterampilan dasar yang diperlukan untuk mengevaluasi kinerja penyedia media dan informasi sesuai dengan fungsi yang diharapkan;
  • Masyarakat yang melek media dan informasi mendorong perkembangan media dan sistem informasi yang bebas, mandiri dan pluralistik;

Agar dapat menikmati manfaat dari kemampuan MIL, diperlukan hal-hal berikut:

  • Melek media dan informasi harus dipertimbangkan secara keseluruhan dan mencakup kombinasi kompetensi (pengetahuan, keterampilan, dan sikap);
  • Kurikulum MIL harus memungkinkan guru untuk mengajarkan literasi media dan informasi kepada siswa agar mereka dapat terlibat dengan media dan saluran informasi sebagai warga muda yang otonom dan rasional;
  • Warga harus memiliki pengetahuan tentang lokasi dan konsumsi informasi serta tentang produksi informasi.
  • Perempuan, laki-laki dan kelompok terpinggirkan, seperti penyandang disabilitas, masyarakat adat atau etnis minoritas, harus memiliki akses yang sama terhadap informasi dan pengetahuan;
  • MIL harus dilihat sebagai alat penting untuk memfasilitasi dialog antarbudaya, saling pengertian dan pemahaman budaya masyarakat.

Kurikulum dan contoh implementasi dalam dokumen UNESCO, merupakan hasil kerja sama dengan mitra untuk mengkompilasi sumber daya termutakhir, yang dapat digunakan dan diadaptasi di seluruh dunia, agar mencerminkan kebutuhan masyarakat dan warganya dalam isu melek media dan informasi.

Berikut adalah ringkasan isi kurikulum pendidikan melek media dan informasi bagi guru, atau pengajar pada umumnya yang telah dikembangkan UNESCO (2021):

K-1 Understanding the Role of Media and Information

The MIL teacher will begin to become familiar with the functions of media and other information providers and understand their importance to citizenship and informed decision-making. Modules in the MIL curriculum that are related to this competence include:

  1. M-1 Introduction to Media & Information Literacy;
  2. M-2 Understanding Information and Technology;
  3. M-14 Communication and Information, MIL and Learning;
  4. M-13 Media Technology, and Sustainable Development Goals.
This competency should include the teacher’s ability to:
  • Identify, describe and evaluate the public service functions of media and other information providers in democratic societies.
  • Demonstrate understanding of key concepts such as freedom of expression, access to information and fundamental rights enshrined in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
  • Interpret and describe the relationship between media and information literacy, citizenship and democracy.
  • Describe media pluralism, media and other information providers as platforms for intercultural dialogue and why these are important.
  • Describe editorial independence.
  • Explain journalism as a discipline of verification within a public service remit.
  • Describe media and information ethics, and be able to identify when these have been breached.

K-2 Understanding Media Content and Its Uses

The MIL teacher will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the ways people use media in their personal and public lives, the relationships among citizens and media content, as well as the use of media for a variety of purposes. Modules in the MIL curriculum that are related to this competence include:

  1. M-2 Understanding Information and Technology;
  2. M-6, Representation in Media;
  3. M-7, How Media and Technology Influence Content;
  4. M-5, Audience and Global Citizenship;
  5. M-10, Advertising and Media and Information Literacy;
  6. M-11, AI, Social Media, and MIL Competencies;
  7. M-13, Media Technology, and Sustainable Development Goals.
This competency should include the teacher’s ability to:
  • Interpret and make connections between media texts, context and values projected by media.
  • Use strategies to analyze stereotypes in media (e.g., recognize stereotypes that serve the interests of some groups in society at the expense of others; identify techniques used in visual media that perpetuate stereotypes).
  • Identify, analyze, and critique a variety of techniques used in advertising that are against international standards and codes of practice.
  • Explore representations, misrepresentations and lack of representation in media and information texts.
  • Understand and describe the characteristics and importance of public service broadcasters (PSB).

K-3 Accessing Information Effectively and Efficiently

The MIL teacher will be able to determine the type of information needed for a particular task and access the information in an effective and efficient manner. Modules in the MIL curriculum that are related to this competence include:

  1. M-1, Introduction to Media & Information Literacy;
  2. M-9, Internet Opportunities and Challenges;
  3. M-3, Research, Content Cycle, Digital Information Processing, Intellectual Property;
  4. M-8, Privacy, Data Protecetion, and You.
This competency should include the teacher’s ability to:
  • Select efficient and effective approaches for accessing information he/she requires for investigative or information retrieval purposes.
  • Identify keywords and related terms for accessing the information needed.
  • Identify a variety of types and formats of potential sources for information.
  • Describe criteria used to make information decisions and choices.

K-4 Critically Evaluating Information and Its Sources

The MIL teacher will be able to critically evaluate information and its sources and to incorporate selected information for problem-solving and analysis of ideas. All modules in the MIL curriculum are related to this competence, specially:

  1. M-1, Introduction to Media & Information Literacy;
  2. M-2, Understanding Information and Technology;
  3. M-3, Research, Content Cycle, Digital Information Processing, and Intelectual Propoerty;
  4. M-9, Internet Opportunities and Challenges;
  5. M-5, Audience and Global Citizenship;
  6. M-6, Representation in Media;
  7. M-10, Advertising and Media & Information Literacy;
  8. M-4, Tackle Misinformation and Hate Speech.
This competency should include the teacher’s ability to:
  • Demonstrate ability to examine and compare information from various sources in order to evaluate its reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, and bias.
  • Use a variety of criteria (e.g., clarity, accuracy, effectiveness, bias, relevance of facts) to evaluate informational media (e.g. websites, documentaries, advertisements, news programmes).
  • Recognize prejudice, deception, or manipulation.
  • Recognize the cultural, social or other contexts within which the information was created and understand the impact of context on interpreting information.
  • Understand the range of media-related technologies and study the interaction of ideas.
  • Compare new knowledge with prior knowledge to determine the value added, contradictions, or other unique characteristics of the information.
  • Determine probable accuracy by questioning the source of data, limitations of the information gathering tools or strategies, and the reasonableness of the conclusions.
  • Use a range of strategies to interpret media texts (e.g. draw conclusions, make generalizations, synthesize materials viewed, refer to images or information in visual media to support point of view, deconstruct media to determine the underlying biases and decode the subtext).

K-5 Applying New and Traditional Media Formats

The MIL teacher will be able to understand the uses of digital technology, communication tools and networks for information gathering and decision-making. Modules in the MIL curriculum that are related to this competence include:

  1. M-9, Internet Opportunities and Challange
  2. M-6, Representation in Media;
  3. M-7, How Media and Technology Influence Content;
  4. M-4, Tackle Misinformation and Hate Speech
  5. M-11, AI, Social Media, and MIL Competencies;
  6. M-12, Digital and Traditional Media;
  7. M-13, Media, Technology, and the SGDs.
This competency should include the teacher’s ability to:
  • Understand the basics of digital technology, communication tools and networks, and their usage in different contexts for different purposes.
  • Use a broad range of media ‘texts’ in order to express his/her own ideas through multiple forms of media (e.g. traditional print, electronic, digital, etc.).
  • Undertake basic online information searches.
  • Understand for what purposes youths use the Internet.

K-6 Situating the Sociocultural Context of Media Content

The MIL teacher will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding that media content is produced within social and cultural contexts. Modules in the MIL curriculum that are related to this competence include:

  1. M-1, Introduction to Media & Information Literacy;
  2. M-2, Understanding Information and Technology;
  3. M-13, Media, Technology, and the SGDs.
This competency should include the teacher’s ability to:
  • Analyze and explain how the rules and expectations governing media genres can be manipulated for particular effects or purposes.
  • Produce media texts that present diverse perspectives and representations.
  • Describe media and other information providers as a platform for intercultural dialogue.
  • Demonstrate ability to critically evaluate local media content and the messages received or created by them for democratic citizenship and cultural diversity.
  • Understand how editing shapes meaning in visual media and their messages (e.g. omission of alternative perspectives; filtered or implied viewpoints; emphasis of specific ideas, etc.)

K-7 Promoting MIL Among Students and Managing Changes

The MIL teacher will be able to use knowledge and skills acquired through his/her MIL training to promote media and information literacy among students and manage related changes in the school environment. Modules in the MIL curriculum that are related to this competence include:

  1. M-1, Citizenship, Freedom of Expression and Information, Access to Information, Democratic Discourse and Life-long Learning;
  2. M-9, Internet Opportunities and Challenges;
  3. M-5, Audience and Global Citizenship
  4. M-13 Media, Technology and The Sustainable;
  5. M-14 Communication and Information, MIL And Learning.
This competency should include the teacher’s ability to:
  • Understand how different students interpret and apply media products and events to their own lives.
  • Understand and use a variety of instructional activities to foster students’ skills in media and information literacy.
  • Demonstrate ability to help students select the most appropriate approaches (i.e., information retrieval systems) for accessing needed information.
  • Demonstrate ability to help students evaluate critically information and its sources while incorporating relevant information into their knowledge base.
  • Use knowledge of effective verbal, non-verbal, and media communication techniques to foster active enquiry, collaboration and free and open communication among students.
  • Understand and use formal and informal assessment strategies to develop knowledge and skills for critical reading, viewing and listening among students.
  • Use media and information literacy tools to foster a more participatory learning environment for students.
  • Use old or new media technologies to create a bond with school-based and out-of school learning, especially for students who are becoming alienated from school.
  • Use ICT in the classroom to help students discover ICT and media sources available to them and how to use them in their learning.
  • Use media and information literacy to widen participation in learning.
  • Use knowledge and skills acquired through his/her training to develop students’ skills in using media and library resources as tools for research and learning.
  • Use knowledge and skills acquired through his/her training to develop students’ skills in evaluating media and information and understanding ethical issues related to media and information literacy.